I do a fair share of painting. Here are some tips for painting both smooth and textured ceilings, with equipment recommendations and tricks of the trade.
Use a Stain-Blocking Primer to Cover Flaws
Roof leaks, overflowing sinks, tobacco smoke and big spills can all leave ugly ceiling stains or dinginess that is impossible to conceal with plain old paint. But cover the stain with a coat of stain-blocking primer and your troubles are over.
The traditional favorite is white pigmented shellac. You can buy spray cans of pigmented shellac. If you're painting over a ceiling that's yellow from smoke, roll a coat of shellac over the entire ceiling before painting with latex.
Sand Before You Paint
Over time, and as the layers of paint build up, bumps and crud can get stuck to the ceiling. On un-textured ceilings, it's a good idea to start with a quick once-over sanding with 100-grit drywall sanding paper. This helps ensure a perfectly smooth paint job and increases paint bonding. The easiest way to do this is with a sanding pole. When you're done sanding, wipe the ceiling with a damp sponge to remove the dust.
Cut in Before You Roll
Cutting in before you roll allows you to cover most of the brush marks with the roller. Carefully brush paint along the edge of the entire ceiling before rolling.
Roll Both Directions
There are a few tricks to getting a smooth, consistent coat of paint on the ceiling. First, work in sections about 5 or 6 ft. square. Move quickly from one section to the next to make sure the paint along the edge doesn't dry before you roll the adjoining section. This is called “keeping a wet edge” and is the key to avoiding lap marks. You'll get the best coverage by immediately re-rolling each section at a right angle to your first roller direction as you go.
Buy Special Ceiling Paint
While there are exceptions, in general you'll get the best results with paint that's formulated for a ceiling application. For a ceiling, you want paint that doesn't spatter, has a long open time (dries slowly), and is flat instead of glossy. Most ceiling paints are formulated with these qualities. And of course you can have ceiling paint tinted if you want a color other than “ceiling white.”
Lap Your Cut-In Onto the Walls
If you're planning to paint the walls too, lap the paint onto the walls a little bit. Then when you paint the walls, you can err on the side of leaving a little ceiling color showing when you cut in and it won't be noticeable. Some painters like to skip this cutting-in step and save time by mashing the roller into the corner instead, but this method is sloppy, builds up excess paint in the corner and can leave runs or a thick paint line on the wall.
Use a Thick, Premium Cover
Here's a tip that applies to most paint jobs but is even more important for ceilings. You want to get as much paint on the ceiling as you can in the shortest amount of time possible while minimizing spatters. To do this, you need the best roller cover you can buy. The best choice is a 1/2-in.-nap lambswool cover. If you've never tried a lambswool roller cover, you owe it to yourself to experience the difference. And if you're worried about the cost, keep in mind that lambswool covers are easy to clean and can last a long time if you take good care of them.
Roll Gently on Textured Ceilings
Painting textured ceilings is a bit of a crapshoot. If the texture has been painted over already, it's probably safe to paint again. If the texture has never been painted, there's a risk the water in the paint could loosen the texture, causing it to fall off in sheets. A lot depends on the quality of the texturing job. If you have a closet or other inconspicuous area, do a test by rolling on some paint to see what happens. If the texture loosens, painting over the larger ceiling is risky.
If possible, spray on the paint—it's less likely to loosen the texture than rolling. But spraying in an occupied house is usually impractical. The best tip for rolling on paint is to avoid overworking the paint. Just roll the paint on and leave it. Don't go back and forth with the roller, as this is likely to pull the texture from the ceiling. If the ceiling needs another coat of paint, wait for the first coat to dry completely. Then roll another coat perpendicular to the first one using the same careful technique.
Groove Textured Ceilings
It's almost impossible to paint right next to rough-textured ceilings (a process called “cutting in”) without getting paint on the ceiling. Taping off the ceiling doesn't work either. The solution? Knock off the texture at the edge with a putty knife. Hold the knife at a 45-degree angle to the wall and run the blade along the edge of the ceiling. The blade scrapes away the texture and leaves a small groove in the ceiling. Clean out the groove with a duster or a dry paintbrush.
Now when you cut in along the top of the wall, the paintbrush bristles will slide into the groove, giving you a crisp paint line without getting paint on the ceiling. And you'll never notice the thin line of missing texture.
Avoid Paint Freckles
Rolling paint on the ceiling showers you with a fine mist. A baseball cap is essential, and safety glasses let you watch your work without squinting.